t’s time for a fivesome. Commentary to: “The predictive value of five glomerular filtration rate formulas for long-term mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting” Coronary artery disease is an extremely common condition and coronary artery bypass-grafting is still one of the most important therapeutic strategy to treat it. Chronic kidney disease is often affecting patients with CAD. Nevertheless, the literature is still debating what formula estimate the best the glomerular filtration rate in patients undergoing CABG. Indeed, the formulas used in clinical practice have some differences some are more accurate in patients with diabetes, while there are some bias given by age and body mass index. In cardiac surgery, the choice of the most fitting formula to evaluate GFR has important clinical implication and, up to now, three formulas have been compared at most. Eilon Ram et al. present a retrospective study which compares the 5 most used formulas (CG, MDRD, CKD-EPI, Mayo, and IB) to derive GFR to evaluate the one with the best accuracy in predicting long-term mortality. In order to do so, they divided 3744 patients in three groups according to the estimated GFR by means of all 5 formulas: significant CKD according to all formulas, non-significant CKD according to all formulas and discordant results (meaning that at least one formula gave normal GFR and at least one formula gave abnormal GFR). Patients with the highest mortality were the ones with significant CKD according to all formulas.
Title : Submitral Aneurysm: Exploring a Rare PathologyAuthors : Kellen Round BS1, Jake L. Rosen BA1, Colin C. Yost BA1, T. Sloane Guy MD, MBA21Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut St #100, Philadelphia, PA 191072Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Curtis Bldg, Ste 620, 1015 Walnut St Philadelphia, PA 19107Running Title: Submitral Aneurysm Commentary
Bipolar Ablation for Outflow Tract Ventricular Arrhythmias: When the Going gets Tough, Two Catheters may be Better than One Anurut Huntrakul, MD1,2 and Jackson J. Liang, DO11 Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.2 Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok 10330, ThailandFunding: NoneDisclosures: None
High Density Pace-Mapping for Scar-related Ventricular Tachycardia AblationTravis D. Richardson MD and William G. Stevenson MD.1 Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USARunning Title: High Density Pace MappingCorresponding Author:Travis D. Richardson, MDDivision of Cardiovascular MedicineVanderbilt University Medical Center1211 Medical Center DrNashville, TN 37232USAEmail: email@example.comWord Count: 2,225Conflicts of Interest :Dr. Stevenson has received speaking Honoria from: Boston Scientific, Medtronic, Abbott, Johnson and Johnson, and Biotronik; he is co-holder of a patent for irrigated needle ablation that is consigned to Brigham and Women’s Hospital.Dr. Richardson has received research funding from Medtronic Inc, Abbott Inc and served as a consultant for Philips Inc and Johnson and Johnson.This work did not receive any funding.Despite advances in medical and interventional therapies, ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to reentrant activity within complex regions of myocardial scar remains a common late complication of myocardial infarction.1 While implantable defibrillators (ICD) may prevent sudden death, ICD shocks are painful and impact quality of life2. Catheter ablation reduces the likelihood of ICD therapies and it’s role early in the course of disease is expanding3–5. However, several factors limit the success and safety of catheter ablation procedures. Scar-related reentry circuits can be large with a critical isthmus shared by multiple loops. Ablation of the isthmus is associated with a low risk of recurrence of that VT6,7. The critical isthmus can be identified during VT by detailed activation mapping and entrainment. However, prolonged mapping during VT is often not feasible or desired. Patients undergoing VT ablation often have severe systolic heart failure as well as other comorbid conditions. VT is often not hemodynamically tolerated and even when tolerated, prolonged time in VT may lead to decompensation. Strategies to limit initiation and mapping of VT may improve procedural safety8. Methods to guide ablation based on characterization of the sinus rhythm substrate alone have generally shown good results9. A number of approaches have been applied, including ablation over the entire low voltage area (scar homogenization)10. While this is often successful, areas of scar can be quite extensive, and undoubtedly this technique leads to ablation of more areas than absolutely necessary for success. This approach is also more effective if epicardial ablation is routinely included, which has the potential to increase procedural risk. A strategy to focus on the critical regions, particularly when a clinically relevant VT is known, remains a reasonable first step in the procedure. A variety of electrogram markers of critical regions have been described including late potentials, potentials that display variable coupling to surrounding tissue during programmed stimulation11 , and areas of slow conduction identified by high density mapping 12,13. While these are likely to increase the specificity of ablation targets compared to electrogram voltage alone, they are also seen at bystander areas14.Pace-mapping during sinus rhythm is useful to help identify the general location of focal arrhythmia sources,15 and can also be used in scar related reentry.16,17 At the reentry circuit exit region the paced QRS morphology often resembles the VT QRS, and this will also occur at sites proximal to the exit provided that the stimulated wavefront follows the reentry path to the exit. A stimulus – QRS > 40 ms is also consistent with slow conduction away from the pacing site, that can be a marker for reentry substrate17.In this issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology,Guenancia et al. review their technique of using high density pace mapping to guide VT ablation18. Their method takes advantage of software available in electroanatomic mapping systems that assigns a measure of correlation between two different QRS morphologies; in this case the VT and the paced QRS morphology.19 A pacing correlation map is generated by pacing multiple sites within the ventricle and color coding the algorithmically derived score for display at each point on the anatomic map. Sites near the exit from the reentry circuit isthmus, typically along the border of a scar, will display good correlation with induced VT. As one moves along the isthmus deeper into the low voltage scar the S-QRS prolongs due to the conduction time between the pacing site and the exit region. If the isthmus is anatomically defined, such that it is present during VT and sinus rhythm, the QRS morphology remains similar to the VT as long as the paced wavefront follows the isthmus out to the exit. Moving to the entrance or adjacent sites outside the isthmus can produce an abrupt transition to a markedly different paced QRS because the wavefront can propagate away without following the path of the isthmus.20 Thus, the pace-map correlation maps can outline the location of a reentry circuit isthmus during sinus rhythm, as they illustrate.Their method can also help identify cases in which the critical isthmus is not located on the surface being mapped. When the VT circuit is epicardial or intramural, the earliest endocardial activation may appear focal. Similarly, the pace-map correlation maps may reveal a concentric or focal pattern of matching, potentially allowing recognition of this situation without the need for activation mapping during VT.We agree with the fundamental principles described, and feel this technique can be a helpful substrate mapping approach. There are several caveats. Evaluation to clarify its specificity and sensitivity is limited. The authors report that in their unpublished experience an abrupt transition is seen in the majority of post-infarct cases, they have also published a series of 10 post-infarct patients undergoing VT ablation during which the pacing correlation maps visually matched VT activation maps.21This technique is likely to be effective in cases where the VT isthmus is confined to the ventricular surface being mapped. Pacing can capture deep to the endocardium depending on current strength.22 Whether this technique can detect intramural isthmuses and whether deep tissue that can be captured with pacing can also be ablated from the pacing site is not clear.It is important to point out that very good correlations with VT can be observed pacing in an outer loop immediately adjacent to the exit where one would not anticipate RF ablation delivery would be effective. If a focal pattern is seen on both the endocardial and epicardial surfaces very little can be inferred about the VT circuit; the site with better correlation would be expected to be closer to the exit. In this setting entrainment during a brief episode of induced VT with assessment of the post-pacing interval can potentially clarify the proximity to the reentry circuit.During VT, areas of functional conduction block may be present that are absent during sinus rhythm. Functional block can also occur remote from the reentry isthmus and alter activation wavefronts during VT changing the QRS morphology. Theoretically it is then possible to have poor correlation between the VT and paced QRS at its exit. In animal models of post-infarction VT exit regions have been shown to harbor very slow areas of conduction which could be prone to altering total ventricular activation during VT.23.We would caution against generalizing these techniques to patients with dilated cardiomyopathies where confluent regions of low voltage scar are absent. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis may play a greater role in some of these VT circuit and anatomically fixed isthmus sites are less likely to be present.Further study is needed before utilizing this technique when anatomical structures within the ventricle are involved in the VT circuit. Structures such as the moderator band may by definition have multiple exits and varied QRS morphologies24, and papillary muscles may display large areas of similar paced morphology25, potentially distorting pacing correlation maps.This technique is unlikely to correctly characterize VT circuits that involve a portion of the cardiac conduction system as occurs in some scar-related VTs and in bundle-branch reentry.26 These circuits may demonstrate a focal pattern at the left or right ventricular apical septum on pacing correlation maps due to the long, insulated nature of the reentrant circuit itself, and ablation at the exit site is very unlikely to be effective.This strategy of high density pace mapping adds to the available substrate mapping methods for guiding VT ablation while limiting VT induction. This strategy does not rely on electrogram interpretation, making it of particular interest in regions of very low voltage. Indeed, when utilizing larger recording electrodes, such as an ablation catheter, pacing will often reveal the presence of excitable tissue where a local electrogram is not always apparent. In post-infarct ventricular tachycardia circuits with a well-defined scar and a short anatomically bounded isthmus, pacing correlation maps are likely to be revealing. More study is warranted to further assess this method in relation to other substrate mapping methods, in complex substrate with intramural components, and in other disease substrates. It is useful to have multiple tools in the tool box. More studies are needed to further define which tools work best for which substrate.References:1. Stevenson WG: Ventricular Tachycardia After Myocardial Infarction: From Arrhythmia Surgery to Catheter Ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1995; 6:942–950.2. Moss AJ, Schuger C, Beck CA, et al.: Reduction in inappropriate therapy and mortality through ICD programming. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:2275–2283.3. Sapp JL, Wells GA, Parkash R, et al.: Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation versus Escalation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:111–121.4. Cronin EM, Bogun FM, Maury P, et al.: 2019 HRS/EHRA/APHRS/LAHRS expert consensus statement on catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias: Executive summary. Heart Rhythm 2020; 17:e155–e205.5. Della Bella P, Baratto F, Vergara P, et al.: Does Timing of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Affect Prognosis in Patients With an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator? Results From the Multicenter Randomized PARTITA Trial. Circulation 2022; .6. Hadjis A, Frontera A, Limite LR, et al.: Complete Electroanatomic Imaging of the Diastolic Pathway Is Associated With Improved Freedom From Ventricular Tachycardia Recurrence. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020; 13:e008651.7. Tokuda M, Kojodjojo P, Tung S, et al.: Characteristics of Clinical and Induced Ventricular Tachycardia Throughout Multiple Ablation Procedures. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2016; 27:88–94.8. Yu R, Ma S, Tung R, et al.: Catheter ablation of scar-based ventricular tachycardia: Relationship of procedure duration to outcomes and hospital mortality. Heart Rhythm 2015; 12:86–94.9. Irie T, Yu R, Bradfield JS, et al.: Relationship between sinus rhythm late activation zones and critical sites for scar-related ventricular tachycardia: systematic analysis of isochronal late activation mapping. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2015; 8:390–399.10. Di Biase L, Santangeli P, Burkhardt DJ, et al.: Endo-Epicardial Homogenization of the Scar Versus Limited Substrate Ablation for the Treatment of Electrical Storms in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 60:132–141.11. de Riva M, Naruse Y, Ebert M, et al.: Targeting the Hidden Substrate Unmasked by Right Ventricular Extrastimulation Improves Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation Outcome After Myocardial Infarction. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2018; 4:316–327.12. Anter E, Neuzil P, Reddy VY, et al.: Ablation of Reentry-Vulnerable Zones Determined by Left Ventricular Activation From Multiple Directions: A Novel Approach for Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation: A Multicenter Study (PHYSIO-VT). Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020; 13:e008625.13. Tung R: Substrate Mapping in Ventricular Arrhythmias. Card Electrophysiol Clin 2019; 11:657–663.14. Nayyar S, Wilson L, Ganesan AN, et al.: High-density mapping of ventricular scar: a comparison of ventricular tachycardia (VT) supporting channels with channels that do not support VT. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2014; 7:90–98.15. Bennett R, Campbell T, Kotake Y, et al.: Catheter ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias with low intraprocedural burden guided by pace mapping. Heart Rhythm O2 2021; 2:355–364.16. Brunckhorst CB, Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG: Identification of the ventricular tachycardia isthmus after infarction by pace mapping. Circulation 2004; 110:652–659.17. Stevenson WG, Sager PT, Natterson PD, Saxon LA, Middlekauff HR, Wiener I: Relation of pace mapping QRS configuration and conduction delay to ventricular tachycardia reentry circuits in human infarct scars. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26:481–488.18. Guenancia C, Supple GE, Sellal J-M, et al.: How to use pace mapping for ventricular tachycardia ablation in post-infarct patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol .19. de Chillou C, Sellal J-M, Magnin-Poull I: Pace Mapping to Localize the Critical Isthmus of Ventricular Tachycardia. Card Electrophysiol Clin 2017; 9:71–80.20. Hanaki Y, Komatsu Y, Nogami A, et al.: Combined endo- and epicardial pace-mapping to localize ventricular tachycardia isthmus in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Eur Eur Pacing Arrhythm Card Electrophysiol J Work Groups Card Pacing Arrhythm Card Cell Electrophysiol Eur Soc Cardiol 2022; 24:587–597.21. de Chillou C, Groben L, Magnin-Poull I, et al.: Localizing the critical isthmus of postinfarct ventricular tachycardia: the value of pace-mapping during sinus rhythm. Heart Rhythm 2014; 11:175–181.22. Itoh T, Yamada T: Excellent Pace Maps Recorded from Two Remote Sites Inside and Outside the Scar in a Patient with Ischemic VT: What Is the Mechanism? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2017; 40:72–74.23. Anter E, Tschabrunn CM, Buxton AE, Josephson ME: High-Resolution Mapping of Postinfarction Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia: Electrophysiological Characterization of the Circuit. Circulation 2016; 134:314–327.24. Jiang C-X, Long D-Y, Li M-M, et al.: Evidence of 2 conduction exits of the moderator band: Findings from activation and pace mapping study. Heart Rhythm 2020; 17:1856–1863.25. Itoh T, Yamada T: Usefulness of pace mapping in catheter ablation of left ventricular papillary muscle ventricular arrhythmias with a preferential conduction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2018; 29:889–899.26. Bogun F, Good E, Reich S, et al.: Role of Purkinje fibers in post-infarction ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48:2500–2507.
The study by Worck et al. raises interesting findings with regard to left atrial posterior wall ablation. The utility of ablation at the CRZ -- which may represent epicardial connection via the septopulmonary bundle -- warrants future research. Upcoming trials utilising existing technology, along with increased availability of pulsed field ablation, will advance our knowledge of the impact of left atrial posterior wall isolation.
Take the bull by its horn: ‘Prophylactic aortic intervention’ in uncomplicated type B aortic dissectionRunning title: Prophylactic intervention in uncomplicated TBADDr. A. Mohammed Idhrees MCh, FIASORCID ID : 0000-0001-5981-9705Consultant,Institute of Cardiac and Aortic Disorders (ICAD),SRM Institutes for Medical Science (SIMS Hospital), Chennai.
The Recurring Theme of Gender Difference in Cardiac Surgical OutcomesJohn S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDDivision of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillWord Count: 1144References: 13Address correspondence to:John S. Ikonomidis MD, PhDProfessor and Chief,Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill3034 Burnett Womack Building160 Dental Circle,Chapel Hill, NC27599e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTel: (919) 966-3381In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery,1Newell and colleagues examined contemporary national outcomes following surgical resection of benign primary atrial and ventricular tumors. The 2016-2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for all patients > 18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of benign neoplasm of the heart who underwent resection of the atria, ventricles, or atrial/ventricular septum. A weighted total of 2,557 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 61 years, 67.9% were female, and patients had relatively low comorbidity burdens. The authors found that while there was no difference in 30-day mortality (2.1% vs 1.3%, p=0.550), 30-day readmission (7.0% vs 9.1%, p=0.222), or 30-day composite morbidity (56.8% vs 53.8%, p=0.369) between females and males respectively, on multivariable analysis, female sex was independently associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 2.65, p=0.028).Overall, this was a well study which documents a large contemporary cohort of benign cardiac tumor resections. However, perhaps the most interesting feature of this study is the finding of sex as an independent predictor of 30 day mortality after propensity matching. Cardiac surgery suffers from a gender gap in terms of its outcomes. It has been well established that for many procedures such coronary bypass surgery (CABG), aortic valve replacement, mitral valve surgery, and aortic surgery.2 For CABG, women referred for surgery are typically older than men, have a higher comorbidity (hypertension, renal failure, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease) profile, and more often present in urgent or emergent status for surgery.3 Large, risk-adjusted, propensity matched studies have documented increased mortality in women as compared with men.4-7 This difference also extends into the interventional cardiology realm, where mortality and complication rates have been shown to be higher in women following percutaneous interventions for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.8For aortic valve replacement, a Nationwide Inpatient Sample study of 166809 patients with aortic stenosis from 2003 to 2014 found that women experience higher inpatient mortality (5.6% versus 4%, P<0.001) which persisted after propensity matching (3.3% versus 2.9%, P<0.001).9 For mitral valve surgery, a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe ischemic mitral insufficiency undergoing repair versus replacement found that women had higher mortality than men (27.1% versus 17.4%, p<0.03).10 For aortic surgery, female gender was associated with a higher mortality after both aortic dissection and aortic arch repair.11,12 Reduction in surgical stress through application of minimally invasive approaches still resulted in female sex being a risk factor for higher in-hospital mortality.13 The findings of the present study add further support to the above observations, with the potential addition that, in contrast to the other disease processes described, the majority of patients presenting for surgical removal of benign cardiac tumors were likely free of either symptoms or cardiac sequelae due to the disease, but nevertheless still the gender disparity in mortality persisted.While it is obvious that the above disease processes and their related surgical remedies are quite disparate, the association with increased mortality seen in females seems to be constant. Why is this? A considerable amount has been written regarding sex bias in referral patterns for surgery and even decreased functional reserve and health profiles of women when they are referred for surgical intervention compared with men.2 With regard to these referral patterns, published guidelines directing practitioners regarding indications for surgery are, in general, based upon studies in which the majority of patients were male. Interestingly, in the present study, females made up over two thirds of the patient population.1 While this suggests that females carry a disproportionately more benign cardiac tumors amenable to surgery, the post-surgical mortality disparity remained.The exact reasons for the above disparity remain unelucidated and further work is required to eliminate the gender gap in cardiac surgical outcomes. There is considerable focus on the removal of sex bias in animal and human research, as well as the development of disease treatment guidelines that consider gender in the algorithms. Hopefully and these and other sex-balanced approaches will reveal new insights that will allow us to bring equipoise to gender-stratified cardiac surgical outcomes.
BACKGROUND Postoperative pain after cardiac surgery is a very important issue and affects recovery, risk of postoperative complications and quality of life. The pain management has been traditionally based on intravenous opioids with growing evidence suggesting the use of opioid-free and opioid-sparing techniques to reduce its adverse effects. CASE PRESENTATION We report the case of a 75-years-old frail patient underwent awake mediastinal revision with subxiphoid access due to deep sternal wound infection using a Pectoralis-Intercostal Rectus Sheath (PIRS) plane block. During the procedure the patient never reported pain receiving acetaminophen 1 g every 8 hours for postoperative pain management without others pain relievers. CONCLUSION Ultrasound guided PIRS block could be an effective and safe analgesic technique to manage sternal and subxiphoid drainage pain in patients undergoing cardiac surgery via subxiphoid approach.
Clinician bias on the low resource workfloorThis is a mini commentary on R Goldenberg et al.,In this study in two LMIC settings in Asia, expert panels who looked at cause of death of premature neonates, with significantly more information available, found far more birth asphyxia and less Respiratory Distress Syndrome than the discharging NICU physicians did. Some NICU physicians attributed respiratory distress in the premature neonate to RDS by default, especially if there was no other information to contradict this belief. Especially in the Pakistan setting, birth asphyxia did not seem to be on the mind of the physician.What could be possible explanations?The maternal population, illiteracy rates, low rates of NICU admission and high death rates in the Pakistan setting suggest an impoverished background population and very restrained resources.In such setting one could easily imagine diagnostic means and treatment options are limited. If there is also lack of staff, reduced availability of beds, and work overload (ref: authors correspondence), priorities have to be made who to admit and who to treat. Life expectancy and quality of life may play a role in triaging.Physicians who work in labourward settings without CTGs may recognize the viewpoint that obstetric management only be guided by the maternal condition. On several SubSaharan African labourwards I experienced that decisions were not (solely) to be based on the supposed fetal condition. To perform ‘an unnecessary caesarean section’, or on the other hand to try and salvage the life of a baby who then turns out to be brain damaged after a poor start, was not seen as good obstetric care. A premature baby with apparent severe birth asphyxia might consequently not be transferred to the NICU. A baby who is admitted may not carry the diagnosis birth asphyxia since, as the authors point out this may imply mismanagement. It could even go further: if potential fetal compromise is not relevant in the obstetric management, it may also not be picked up. The obstetric physician could in such situation easily develop a blind spot for birth asphyxia.Another cause of clinician bias in such low resource settings could be underestimation of the gestation, making RDS a more likely diagnosis. If gestational scans are not available, and last menstrual periods are unreliable (associated with illiteracy) gestational age is more often estimated by fundal height at presentation in labourward, or by the birthweight of the baby. Underestimation could be the case in Pakistan where 65% of babies were thought to be less than 32 weeks, only 12,5 % of the neonates were thought to be growth restricted which is associated with birth asphyxia, but nearly 63 % suffered with birth asphyxia according to the panel.These are several hypotheses how physicians in a low resource setting could form biases in their clinical thinking, which, when not corrected by other information, could lead to incorrect diagnoses and mismanagement. This correcting information could come from diagnostic tools, such as PCR tests Xchest, etc,. However, sufficient time and systems in place for proper handovers, e.g. between the obstetrician and pediatrician, an open mind and awareness of pitfalls, audit and reflection on one’s management, and training to stay up to date are just as important. Hopefully expert panel studies such as these, could stimulate awareness and be a motor to improved Obstetric and Pediatric Care in LMIC settings.
Inducible defenses of prey are evolved under diverse and variable predation risks. However, during the co-evolution of prey and multiple predators, the responses of prey to antagonistic predation risks, which may put the prey into a dilemma of responding to predators, remain unclear. Based on antagonistic predation pressure from an invertebrate (Chaoborus larvae) and a vertebrate (Rhodeus ocellatus) predator, we studied the responses of multiple traits and transcriptomes of the freshwater crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta under multiple predation risks. Chaoborus predation risk altered the expression of genes encoding cuticle proteins and modulated the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, cutin, suberine, and wax, leading to the development of horns and increase in size at the late developmental stage. Meanwhile, fish predation risk primarily triggered genes encoding ribosomes and those involved in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and cysteine and methionine metabolism, resulting in smaller individual size and earlier reproduction. Inducible responses of both transcriptome and individual traits revealed that predator-dependent unique responses were dominant and the dilemma of antagonistic responses was relatively limited. However, the unique individual traits in response to invertebrate predation could be significantly impaired by vertebrate predation risk, even though the unique responses to different predators were extremely weakly correlated and could be elicited simultaneously. These results indicate that diverse predator-dependent unique responses are favored by Ceriodaphnia during its co-evolution with multiple predators. Nonetheless, Ceriodaphnia is not a generalist that can fully adopt all predator-dependent unique responses simultaneously under multiple predation risks.
Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) has revolutionized management of aortic arch and proximal descending aorta pathologies. Despite significant advancement in FET prosthesis design in recent years, adverse outcomes related with neurologic and visceral ischemic events remained unsolved. To address this issue, several publications evaluated protection strategies to reduce body lower ischemic time. In the present commentary we put the technique promoted as “Release and Perfuse Technique” on scale that is for achievement of less lower body circulatory arrest time.
We read, with interest, the article by Deb et al. entitled “Positive QRS complex in limb lead 2 with negative QRS in lead 3 on surface electrocardiogram: A novel predictor for anterior location of right sided accessory pathways.” 1 We would like to raise a few concerns regarding the interpretation of the electrocardiographic (ECG) sign they have highlighted.