Aim: To test the feasibility and accuracy of a new attention-based deep learning (DL) method for right ventricular (RV) quantification using 2D echocardiography (2DE) with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as reference. Methods and results: We retrospectively analyzed images from 50 adult patients (median age 51, interquartile range 32-62 42% women) who had undergone CMR within 1 month of 2DE. RV planimetry of the myocardial border was performed in end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) for 8 standardized 2DE RV views with calculation of areas. The DL model comprised a Feature Tokenizer module and a stack of Transformer layers. Age, gender and calculated areas were used as inputs, and the output was RV volume in ED/ES. The dataset was randomly split into training, validation and testing subsets (35, 5 and 10 patients respectively). Mean RVEDV, RVESV and RV ejection fraction (EF) were 163±70ml, 82±42ml and 51±8% respectively without differences among the subsets. The proposed method achieved good prediction of RV volumes (R 2=0.953, absolute percentage error [APE]=9.75±6.23%) and RVEF (APE=7.24±4.55%). Per CMR, there was 1 patient with RV dilatation and 3 with RV dysfunction in the testing dataset. The DL model detected RV dilatation in 1/1 case and RV dysfunction in 4/3 cases. Conclusions: An attention-based DL method for 2DE RV quantification showed feasibility and promising accuracy. The method requires validation in larger cohorts with wider range of RV size and function. Further research will focus on the reduction of the number of required 2DE to make the method clinically applicable.
Dextrocardia is a cardiac positional anomaly in which the heart is located in right hemithorax with base-to-apex axis directed to the right and caudad. A number of congenital heart defects have been reported with dextrocardia, including VSD, PDA, ASD, TOF, pentalogy of Fallot, infundubular PS, transposition and pseudotruncus and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. We will share a patient with severe TR due to tricuspid valve commissural prolapse. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed dextrocardia and severe TR consisting of two separate regurgitation jets. Contrast echocardiography performed due to dilatation of the coronary sinüs, did not show persistent left superior vena cava, and no right-to-left shunt was observed. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a prolapse in the commissure where the tricuspid anterior and septal leaflets meet, and a severe eccentric regurgitation jet with an area of vena contracta 0.75cm2 in the 3D MPR was observed. A moderate regurgitation jet was also seen from the coaptation line of all three leaflets. Commussural prolapse and regurgitation jet revealed in detail by 3D imaging. No significant pathology was detected in the other valves except mild insufficiency. Right heart catheterization and tricuspid valve surgery were planned for the patient with normal right heart functions. Although it is known that there are many congenital pathologies accompanying dextrocardia, we are happy to share our experience with you as the first case to report the coexistence of primary tricuspid valve disease and commusural prolapse with 3D detailed imaging.
ABSTRACT Maternal hyperoxygenation (MH) has been studied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate pulmonary vasculature and as a treatment option to improve the growth of fetal left heart in fetuses with left-sided cardiac defects. Chronic maternal hyperoxygenation (CMH) therapy leads to an improvement in fetal pulmonary blood flow resulting in an enhanced venous return to the left heart with increased gestational age. With this manipulation it is anticipated to augment blood flow directed remodeling of the left heart structures and to improve left heart growth spanning from the mitral valve to the aortic isthmus. However, there are concerns about CMH therapy with regard to fetal complications with growth restriction and fetal brain development. Now, with two successful cases we try to discuss this fetal treatment option and related concerns.
A 59-year-old male was incidentally diagnosed with a left atrial mitral valve chordae involving the junction of the A1 and A2 mitral valve leaflets and resulting in moderate mitral regurgitation. The recognition of this extremely rare congenital malformation prevented over diagnosis and overtreatment.
A giant coronary artery aneurysm (GCAA) concurrent with coronary artery fistula is a rare condition, and it becomes even more unusual when combined with a single coronary artery (SCA) anomaly. Here we report such an extremely rare case, who is a 35-year-old woman presenting with severe chest distress. A GCAA with fistula to the right ventricle was noted, occurring in a single coronary artery, diagnosed by multimodality cardiovascular imaging techniques. Both GCAA and coronary artery fistula can cause severe cardiac complications, which jeopardize life. While an SCA is mostly asymptomatic, it may also lead to sudden cardiac death as well. Therefore, surgical intervention was recommended. We chose a novel thrombus-inducing strategy to eliminate the GCAA and repair the fistula. Symptoms were relieved after the surgery, and the patient remained asymptomatic over 8 months of follow-up.
Objective: To assess the accuracy of prenatal echocardiography in defining pulmonary vasculature in pulmonary atresia with VSD (PAVSD). The second aim is to compare the perinatal and postnatal outcomes of different pulmonary blood supply types. Design:The cases prenatally diagnosed with PAVSD between January 2017- October 2022 in a single tertiary fetal medicine center were identified on the electronic database. Fetal echocardiography reports and images were reviewed retrospectively. Postnatal outcomes and images were acquired from the hospital records of relevant pediatric cardiology and cardiovascular surgery clinics. Fetal echocardiography results were compared with postnatal results. Perinatal and postnatal outcomes were compared between the pulmonary vascular supply types. Results: Among the 24 PAVSD cases, six were diagnosed with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCA) dependent, eleven were diagnosed with ductus arteriosus (DA) dependent pulmonary vascular supply, and seven were diagnosed with double pulmonary supply (MAPCA + DA) on prenatal echocardiography. Seventeen cases were live-born and have undergone postnatal investigations. Fetal echocardiography was 88.2% accurate about the type of pulmonary vascular supply. The accuracy of fetal echocardiography regarding pulmonary vascular anatomy was 82.3%. Four cases were demised before surgical interventions. Postoperative survival was 69.2%. Mortality and postoperative survival did not differ between pulmonary supply groups. Survival was disrupted with extracardiac anomalies. The need for early surgical interventions was significantly higher in the DA group. Conclusion:The anatomy of pulmonary vascularization in PAVSD can be defined precisely on fetal echocardiography. The source of pulmonary blood supply does not impact postnatal short-term outcomes significantly; however, it affects the postnatal management. The associated anomalies highly contribute to postnatal mortality. Therefore, MAPCAs, the anatomy of the pulmonary arteries, and accompanying abnormalities should be intensely searched on fetal ultrasonography.
Double orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly that is often associated with other congenital cardiac abnormalities. Patients may present with valvular dysfunction or may be asymptomatic and have an incidental diagnosis of double outlet mitral valve. Whether symptoms due to this pathology are present or not, it is important to accurately characterize this lesion. 3-dimensional imaging is a powerful diagnostic modality for diagnosing and characterizing lesions such as this as highlighted in this case image series.
A 46-year-old woman underwent pericardiocentesis and pericardial window for recurrent pericardial effusion. She presented 17 months later with signs and symptoms consistent with constrictive pericarditis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass surrounding the pericardium. A transcutaneous core needle biopsy of the pericardium confirmed the diagnosis of pericardial mesothelioma.
A 32-year-old female patient presented with palpitations and chest discomfort. The patient had a history of pericardiotomy due to pericardial effusion. Multimodal imaging, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were used showing a pericardial cyst as the cause of the symptoms. Furthermore its location and potential complications were accurately defined. The patient underwent successful surgical resection of the cyst, and histopathological analysis confirmed a bronchogenic cyst, a very rare congenital malformation. The article discusses the rarity of bronchogenic cysts in the pericardium and the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Introduction and objectives：Traditional transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) via the femoral vein carries risk of radiation damage. Transcutaneous closure of ASD under echocardiography guidance avoids radiation exposure and can be gradually applied. An alternative is to transcutaneous closure of ASD trans-jugular with an adjustable curved sheath under echocardiography guidance. Methods: We retrospectively studied all cases of trans-jugular transcutaneous closure of ASD with an adjustable curved sheath under echocardiography guidance in the Heart Center of Henan Province People’s Hospital between 2016 and December 2022. Results: 156 patients were included, 74 males and 82 females. Mean age was 6.9 ± 7.4 years and weight 23.7 ± 14.6 kg. Mean sizes of the ASD and occluder were (9.7 ± 4.7) mm and (14.1 ± 5.7) mm. The mean operation time was (49.6 ± 29.2) min. No complications such as atrioventricular block, reoperation, or pericardial effusion occurred. There are 3 patients had a residual shunt. All patients were followed-up for (38.7 ± 11.0)months. The 3 patients with residual shunt had self-closed at the 3-6-12months follow-up. There was no complication at follow-up. Conclusion: Trans-jugular transcutaneous closure of ASD with adjustable curved sheath under echocardiography guidance is safe, effective and minimally invasive.
Effective treatment, but also proper diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, remains a major challenge in everyday practice. A quick, safe, and economically acceptable non-invasive procedure should play a leading role in cardiovascular risk assessment before invasive diagnostics is performed. The staging of subclinical atherosclerosis may help in further clinical decisions. Safe, widely available, and relatively inexpensive, ultrasonography is a promising examination that should find wider application in clinical practice. The latest ESC guidelines emphasize the usefulness of carotid ultrasound in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and subclinical assessment of atherosclerosis, which help to determine the level of cardiovascular risk. Ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries, especially superficial vessels such as the femoral arteries, is quite easy, quick, and accurate. Other vascular beds, such as iliac and renal, are more demanding to examine, but can also provide valuable information. This review summarizes important studies comparing the severity of atherosclerosis in ultrasound-visible vascular beds in patients with established CAD. We especially emphasize the benefits of the combined assessment of atherosclerosis features, which were characterized by high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CAD and other serious cardiovascular diseases.
Background The purpose of the study was to determine the association between vena contracta area (VCA) and secondary leaflet tethering among mitral valve prolapse (MVP) patients, and thus to further identify and characterize an MVP with pathological leaflet tethering (MVPt+) phenotype. Methods We prospectively evaluated 94 consecutive MVP patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) and 20 healthy controls. MVPt+ group was defined as tenting volume index (TVi) > 0.7 ml/m 2. The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of mitral valve apparatus and VCA was measured with dedicated quantification software. Results Of the 94 patients with MVP and significant MR, 31 patients showed a TVi > 0.7 ml/m 2 and entered the MVP with leaflet tethering (MVPt+) group. In stepwise multivariate analysis, only prolapse volume index and TVi was independently associated with 3D VCA. Apart from marked left ventricular and annular enlargement, MVPt+ group presented significantly higher frequency of leaflet flail, greater VCA, elevated plasma levels of NT-proBNP and sPAP. ROC curve revealed that occurrence of leaflet tethering is associated with a VCA ≥0.55 cm 2 in MVP patients. Conclusions Secondary leaflet tethering is a significant mechanism behind severe degenerative mitral regurgitation, resulting an MVPt+ phenotype featuring more advanced morphological and hemodynamical characteristics .
Background. Two-dimensional speckle tracking evaluation (2D-STE) is a useful tool to evaluate the complexity of atrial function by the analysis of the different phases of atrial deformation and by the combination with Doppler measurements of diastolic function. Aim of the study. To evaluate the role of the left atrial (LA) strain parameters to predict worsening chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods. We enrolled outpatients affected by CHF referred to our heart failure unit. Each patient underwent a medical visit, an electrocardiogram (ECG), and an echocardiographic examination. LA function was assessed by 2D-STE. The three phases of LA strain – i.e. the reservoir (LAr), the conduit (LAcd), and the contraction (LAct) – were evaluated. Moreover, the ratio between LAr and that of septal (LAr/Ees), lateral (LAr/Eel), and septal-lateral (LAr/Eem) E/e’ were evaluated. During follow-up, the worsening of heart failure was evaluated. Results. Two hundred twenty-eight patients were enrolled. During a mean follow-up of 14±7 months, 47 patients showed at least one event related to heart failure worsening (40 hospitalisations, 5 heart transplantations, and 19 cardiovascular deaths). During univariate Cox regression analysis, LAr, LAcd, LAct, LAr/Ees, LAr/Eel, and LAr/Eem were all associated with events related to heart failure worsening, but during multivariate regression analysis, only LAr (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91–0.98; p: 0.007), LAr/Ees (HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.30–0.78; p: 0.002), and LAr/Eem (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.89; p: 0.008) remained significantly associated with the events. Finally, LASr/Ee’s showed accuracy in predicting outcomes greater than LASr (C-index 0.78 vs. 0.72, respectively). Conclusions. In CHF patients, the measure of the LA reservoir by 2D-STE is independently associated with heart failure worsening, but the accuracy in predicting the events is even greater when the reservoir is combined with the Doppler measures of diastolic function.
A 16-year-old male with past medical history of congenital atrial septal defect surgical repair presented with recurrent pericarditis secondary to post-cardiotomy injury syndrome (PCIS). After failing medical therapy, he ultimately underwent pericardiectomy for symptom resolution. PCIS is underdiagnosed in children and should be considered in patients with recurrent chest pain.
Aim:This study aims to investigate the effects of maternal asthma on fetal cardiac functions. Methods:The study was planned with 30 pregnant women who presented to a tertiary health center and were diagnosed with asthma and 60 healthy controls with similar gestational ages. The fetal echocardiographic assessment was assessed between 33 and 35 weeks of gestation with pulsed-wave Doppler (PW), M-mode, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Fetal cardiac functions were compared between maternal asthma and control group. Cardiac functions were assessed according to the duration of maternal asthma diagnosis, as well. Results:Early diastolic function parameters, tricuspid E wave (p=0.001), and tricuspid E/A ratio (P=0.005) were significantly lower in the group with maternal asthma. TAPSE and MAPSE values were statistically lower in the study group than in the control group; p=0.010 and p=0.012, respectively. Parameters assessed with TDI (E’, A’, S’, E/E’, and MPI’ of tricuspid valves) and global cardiac function parameters assessed with pulsed-wave Doppler like myocardial performance index (MPI) and left cardiac output (LCO) were similar between groups (p> 0.05). Although, MPI did not change between groups, and the isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) value was prolonged in maternal asthma cases (p=0.025). Conclusion:We found that maternal asthma disease causes alteration in fetal diastolic and early systolic cardiac functions, but the global fetal cardiac function does not change. Diastolic heart function values also varied with the duration of maternal asthma. Prospective studies are needed to compare fetal cardiac functions with additional patient groups according to disease severity and type of medical treatment.
Objective: Device lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation (LITR) mechanisms are well-defined by 3D transthoracic echocardiography (3D-TTE). There is a lack of data on the Latin-American population. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of several mechanisms and insights in patients with permanent right ventricular (RV) implanted devices by 3D-TTE examination. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 101 patients with permanent cardiac devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators. 3D-TTE was obtained on all patients in RV-focused apical views to perform a complete tricuspid valve (TV) evaluation: leaflets, subvalvular apparatus, precise lead location, and functional assessment to evaluate possible mechanisms of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Results: In a total of 101 patients, the leads did not interfere with TV function in 53 p. (59%), while LITR was observed in 38 (41%) patients. Adherent, impinging, entangled, and mixed lead-induced mechanisms were observed. Time in years since device implantation was significantly higher in patients with LITR. Conclusions: LITR was present in a high proportion of our population. LITR is the result of damage to the TV as well as its subvalvular apparatus due to the fibrotic and inflammatory response over time when leads are situated in unfavorable locations.
Background: For severe mitral valve (MV) degenerative disease, repair is recommended. Prediction of repair complexity and referral to centers of excellence can increase rates of successful repair. This study sought to demonstrate that TEE is a feasible imaging modality to predict the surgical MV complexity score previously developed by Anyanwu et al. Methods: Two hundred TEE examinations of patients who underwent MV repair (2009 – 2011) were retrospectively reviewed and scored by two cardiac anesthesiologists. TEE scores were compared to surgical complexity scores of same subset of patients. Kappa values were reported for the agreement of TEE and surgical scores. McNemar’s tests were used to test the homogeneity of the marginal probabilities of different scoring categories. Results: TEE scores were slightly lower (2[1,3]) than surgical scores (3[1,4]). Agreement was 66% between the scoring methods, with a moderate kappa (0.46). Using surgical scores as the gold standard, 70%, 71% and 46% of simple, intermediate and complex surgical scores, respectively, were correctly scored by TEE. P1, P2, P3, and A2 prolapse were easiest to identify with TEE and had the highest agreement with surgical scoring (P1 agreement 79% with kappa 0.55, P2 96% (kappa 0.8), P3 77% (kappa 0.51), A2 88% (kappa 0.6)). The lowest agreement between the two scores occurred with A1 prolapse (kappa 0.05) and posteromedial commissure prolapse (kappa 0.14) (Figure 3). In the presence of significant disagreement, TEE scores were more likely to be of higher complexity than surgical. McNemar’s test was significant for prolapse of P1 (p=0.005), A1 (p=0.025), A2 (p=0.041), and the posteromedial commissure (p<.0001).
Background: As the volume of cardiac imaging continues to increase, so is the number of tests performed for rarely appropriate indications. Appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents were published by professional societies with quality improvement (QI) interventions developed in various institutions. However, the effectiveness of these interventions has not been assessed in a systematic fashion. Methods: We performed a database search for studies reporting the association between cardiac imaging, AUC and QI. We selected studies assessing the effect of QI interventions on performance of rarely appropriate echocardiograms. The primary endpoint was reduction of rarely appropriate testing. Results: Nine studies with 22,070 patients met inclusion criteria. QI interventions resulted in statistically significant reduction in rarely appropriate tests (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41-0.66; p<0.01). The effects of QI interventions were analyzed over both the short (< 3 months) and long-term (> 3 months) post intervention (OR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.49-0.79; p<0.01 in the short term, and OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.62; p<0.01 in the long term). Subgroup analysis of the type of intervention, classified as education tools or decision support tools showed both significantly reduced rarely appropriate testing (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.73; p<0.01; OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.36-0.61; p<0.01). Adding a feedback tool did not change the effect compared to not using a feedback tool (OR 0.49 vs. 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36-0.68 vs. 0.39-0.84; p>0.05). Conclusion: QI interventions are associated with a significant reduction in performance of rarely appropriate echocardiography testing, the effects of which persist over time.