Concerns have been raised regarding the potential negative effects on human health of water disinfectants used in swimming-pools. Among the disinfection options, the approaches using chlorine-based products have been typically preferred. Chlorine readily reacts with natural organic matter that are introduced in the water mainly through the bathers, leading to the formation of potentially harmful chlorination by-products (CBPs). The formation of CBPs is of particular concern since they have been epidemiologically associated with the development of various clinical manifestations. The higher the concentration of these volatile CBPs in the water, the higher their concentration in the air above the pool, and different routes of exposure to chemicals in swimming-pools (water ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation) contribute to the individual exposome. CBPs may affect the respiratory and skin health of those who stay indoor for long periods, such as swimming instructors, pool staff, and competitive swimmers. Whether those who use chlorinated-pools as customers, particularly children, may also be affected has been a matter of debate. In this article, the EAACI Joint Task Force of the Working Group of Allergy, Asthma & Sports and the Interest Groupf of Environmental & Occupational Allergy discusses the current evidence regarding the health effects of both acute and chronic exposures in different populations (work-related exposures, intensive sports and recreational attendance) and identify the main recommendations and unmet needs for research in this area.
Adequate nasal breathing is indispensable for athletes and nasal symptoms have been shown to inter-fere with their subjective feeling of comfortable breathing and quality of life. Nasal symptoms are caused by either structural abnormalities or mucosal pathology. Structural pathologies are managed differently from mucosal disease and therefore adequate diagnosis is of utmost importance in athletes in order to choose the correct treatment option for the individual. Literature suggests that nasal symp-toms are more prevalent in athletes compared to the general population and certain sport environments might even trigger the development of symptoms. Given the high demands of respiratory function in athletes, insight into triggering factors is of high importance for disease prevention. Also, it has been suggested that athletes are more neglectful to their symptoms and hence remain undertreated, meaning that special attention should be paid to education of athletes and their caregivers. This review aims at giving an overview of nasal physiology in exercise as well as the possible types of nasal pathology. Additionally, diagnostic and treatment options are discussed and we focus on un-met needs for the management and prevention of these symptoms in athletes within the concept of precision medicine.