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Anti-inflammatory effects of physical stimuli: the central role of networks in shaping the future of pharmacological research
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  • Veronica Paparozzi,
  • Reyhaneh Hooshmandabbasi,
  • Alessandro Ravoni,
  • Ying Ma,
  • Luigi Manni,
  • Timothy J. Koh,
  • Caroline Maake,
  • Tiziana Guarnieri,
  • Darong Lai,
  • Vitalii Zablotski,
  • Christine Nardini
Veronica Paparozzi
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
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Reyhaneh Hooshmandabbasi
University of Zurich
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Alessandro Ravoni
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
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Ying Ma
Southeast University
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Luigi Manni
Institute of Translational Pharmacology National Research Council
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Timothy J. Koh
University of Illinois Chicago
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Caroline Maake
University of Zurich
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Tiziana Guarnieri
Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna
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Darong Lai
Southeast University
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Vitalii Zablotski
Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Sciences
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Christine Nardini
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Corresponding Author:christine.nardini.rsrc@gmail.com

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Abstract

Building on the successful synergy between biology and systems & network theories, Systems Biology and Systems Medicine have been instrumental to address complexity in the study of life sciences. Along this line, Systems Pharmacology is the obvious next step. In this review we focus on physical stimuli, whose analysis in pharmacology is generally neglected, despite their ability, once transduced, to show medicinal properties. To cope with this missed opportunity, our ambition is threefold: (i) highlight how different (mechanic, optic, magnetic, electric) physical stimuli impinge on inflammation; (ii) disseminate knowledge on cutting-edge network approaches as effective tools to exploit the intricacy and develop the potential of anti-inflammatory physical therapies within the systems pharmacology framework, to ultimately (iii) adding physical stimuli to the routine mindset of pharmacologists. We expect this review to raise more questions than it gives answers, thus igniting research in an area whose application gap urgently needs fulfillment.