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Vaccine candidates, immuno-dominant antigens, and potent vaccine adjuvants for preventing cutaneous leishmaniasis: a sys
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  • Abiy Ayele Angelo,
  • Gashaw Adane,
  • Yeshambel Belyhun,
  • Bisrat Birke Teketelew,
  • Dereje Mengesha Berta,
  • Elias Chane,
  • Negesse Cherie,
  • Mesele Nigus,
  • Getu Girmay,
  • Mebratu Tamir,
  • Muluneh Assefa,
  • Mohammed Adem
Abiy Ayele Angelo
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences

Corresponding Author:abiyuog12@gmail.com

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Gashaw Adane
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Yeshambel Belyhun
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Bisrat Birke Teketelew
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Dereje Mengesha Berta
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Elias Chane
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Negesse Cherie
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Mesele Nigus
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Getu Girmay
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Mebratu Tamir
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Muluneh Assefa
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Mohammed Adem
University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Abstract

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common clinical form of leishmaniasis that causes skin disease. Currently, there is no licensed prophylactic vaccine for CL, as the mechanisms of healing and memory T-cell responses that develop after infection with CL are far from fully understood. A review of the published articles identifying CL vaccine candidates, immuno-dominant antigens, and potent vaccine adjuvants is needed to provide comprehensive information. Therefore, we aimed to review vaccine candidates, immuno-dominant antigens, and potent vaccine adjuvants for preventing cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: A systematic search of published studies before December 2023 was identified using electronic databases; PubMed/MEDLINE, Hinari Research4Life, Google Scholar, and direct Google search. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Data were extracted using a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet and data obtained were then reported using tables and figures and synthesized qualitatively. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s (JBI) quality appraisal tool for experimental studies. Results: The electronic databases search yielded 661 articles of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included articles were conducted in various animal and human models and included vaccine candidates, immuno-dominant antigens, and potent vaccine adjuvants. Some of the first-generation vaccine candidates showed complete protection of the specified animal model. They induced strong T-cell mediated and antibody-mediated humoral immune responses (e.g. Curdlan dectin-1, total Leishmania antigen (TLA), and L. infantum heat shock proteins ( LiΔHSP70-II)). Almost all second and third-generation vaccine candidates, and the immuno-dominant antigens of the parasite and the host enhance T cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses. We also reviewed potent vaccine adjuvants such as myrrh silver nanoparticles (MSNPs), and Imiquimod, which play an important role in enhancing immune responses against Leishmania antigens. Conclusion and recommendations: The T-cell mediated immune response was significantly induced in various experimental models (e.g. IFN-γ and TNF-α response) and also the humoral arm in some instances (e.g. IgG2). This review thus provides comprehensive information on the efficacy and induction of protective immunity of vaccine candidates, antigenic molecules, and vaccine adjuvants against CL. However, there is still a need for a comprehensive understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of the disease upon vaccination.
30 Apr 2024Submission Checks Completed
30 Apr 2024Assigned to Editor
30 Apr 2024Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
30 Apr 2024Reviewer(s) Assigned